Scientific evidence for homeopathy part 2

Christer Sundqvist

In an earlier article [16] (Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy Part 1), I interviewed the well-known and respected Finnish homeopath Jouni Jämsä ( ). He helps us to elucidate the nature and application of homeopathy for people with cancer and other serious illnesses. We talked to him again. Bit by bit, you will notice how this poorly known traditional form of care, which raises such frustratingly big disputes, on the contrary offers help to people seeking health.



The homeopath is properly interrogated


“Jouni, do you know of any completely impartial homeopathic studies excluding other disturbing factors in research and as well as it is possible shows the effectiveness of the homeopathic preparation?”


I noticed that the earlier article has led to a lively discussion on social media. Okay, such a debate is needed. Thanks for this opportunity, Christer.


The first article presented studies with different types of technology, where materials have also been found in highly diluted (potentiated) homeopathic preparations. When comparing the homeopathic preparation with placebo, there were distinct differences [1, 2, 3, 4] and it could be proven that there was “something” in the homeopathic preparation. This “something” has been proven effective for over 200 years and is now proven by medical research methods.


To answer your interesting question, I would like to say that homeopathic studies of plants are rather fascinating indications that “nothing” is really “something”. Maybe we could discuss homeopathy from a botanical perspective?



Plants respond to homeopathy


The homeopathic preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica were used to treat lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) and a study was undertaken to show how the seeds sprouted under conditions where they were exposed to aluminum. This study was conducted in Brazil in a joint study between three different universities (Federal Universities of Viçosa, Ouro Preton and Minas Gerais).

In Brazil, there is aluminum in the soil and aluminum poisoning is an important factor limiting the growth of plants in acidic soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH, Alumina 12cH, Calcarea carbonica 6cH and Calcarea carbonica 12cH on seedlings of lettuce seeds and plant growth when the seeds were exposed to toxic concentrations of aluminum.

In the randomized experiment, 6 treatments were performed and the experimental set-up was repeated 3 times. The seeds were divided into groups as follows:

1) pelleted seeds / talc + aluminum 6 cH;

2) pelleted seeds / talc + aluminum 12cH;

3) pelleted seeds / talc + Calc.c 6cH;

4) pelleted seeds / talc + Calc.c 12cH;

5) pelleted seeds / talc + distilled water;

6) seeds without pelleting (control).


The variables examined were the germination percentage (GP), the germination index (GSI) and the length of the germ (RL). Homeopathic preparations Alumina 6cH and 12cH and Calcarea carbonica 6cH and 12cH had a distinct effect on salad seeds. There was a significant difference in germination rate and germ length between samples treated with homeopathic preparations and controls. These are clear variables that reflect the growth power of seeds [12].



The picture above is from a Brazilian study [12].

A European research team at the University of Verona in Bologna has studied wheat grains and homeopathic preparations. Wheat grains were first treated with arsenic oxide. The grains were then divided into three groups, one treated with potentiated arsenic trioxide (22.5 C, dilution exceeding Avogadro’s number), another group with potentiated water and a third with only water (negative control group). The effects on the barley were followed by a drop evaporation test (DEM) and the sprouts with a blinded test.


The experiment examined the rate of germination and noted grains that had not grown at all. Significantly better germination was achieved when a shaken (potentiated) arsenic preparation was used. According to the research team, potentiation was of great importance for germination [5]. Homeopathic preparations improved the germination of grains contaminated with arsenic according to the established homeopathy philosophy Similia cum similibus – the same cures the same. In addition, the study found differences in the sprouts according to how much the preparations were shaken (strengthened).


The above experiment was continued when a blinded laboratory experiment demonstrated the effect of a 45-fold dilution of Arsenicum albumin (As2O3) on wheat germs which seeds had been poisoned with a dose of the same substance.


In the experiment, 60 grains were in the control group and they were treated with distilled water (group 1). 150 grains were treated with As2O3 followed by treatment with distilled water (group 2). 150 grains were also treated with As2O3 and homeopathic arsenic 45x (group 3) [6]


The homeopathic treatment led to a statistically significant effect on the growth of the germ. Thus, the experimental results supported previous research [5]. The dilution ratio used in the experiment was above the Avogadro’s number, ie there should have been “nothing”.


“This is brand new information for me and a pretty convincing proof that homeopathy is not just something “empty”. You get really excited. Do you have more? ”


I have been following homeopathic research for decades and the plants give us homeopaths further confirmation that we are on the right track. Homeopathy really works even though the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood.


Maybe I tell about the growth and development of duckweed and homeopathic treatment. This randomized double-blind experiment was performed at the University of Bern, the KIKOM unit. The aquatic plant food (Lemna gibba) was exposed to arsenic for 48 hours. The plants were then placed in medium containing either potentiated arsenic or gibberellic acid (17x, 18x, 21x-24x, 28x, 30x, 33x) or control fluids. One of the control fluids was shaken water and the other was not shaken. Growth was monitored for 6 days.


No effect was seen during the first two days, but during the following four days the growth rate increased statistically significantly in the plants that received the enhanced Arsenicum album preparation. Potential gibberellic acid had no effect on growth.

This study revealed the exact procedures for homeopathic remedies. The potentiated preparations had different effects, ie. the homeopathic drug Arsenicum produced growth, but the potent gibberellic acid had no effect [7].


But there will be more information! In a recent experiment, gibberellic acid had no effect. But when studying the sprouts, it still had an effect. And even in a rather exciting way.

A very exciting experiment was conducted at the Department of Botany at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the ability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to grow was studied. The homeopathic gibberellic acid repeatedly led to larger plants, ie. HGA3 elicited a biological response compared to the control group. Changes in plant development were observed in the experiment when different homeopathic strengths were tested between treated grain groups.

In a previous study [7] in which the plant was exposed to arsenic, homeopathic forms of gibberellic acid had no effect on plant growth. In this study unexposed barley was used and it was investigated whether homeopathic gibberellic acid could in turn have an effect on growth. According to homeopathic philosophy, diseases such as exposure to arsenic can be treated: Similia cum similibus – The same cures the same – on the principle that the treatment itself is the homeopathic arsenic form.

“You see, this was interesting! Can a biologist speculate a bit? When we studied the effect of a homeopathic preparation, the study just showed that we actually took care of the plant’s “health”, because it did not get any arsenic and thus was not exposed, ie we had healthy plant grains. Instead, grains that received arsenic were treated as “diseased” grains, and then gibberellic acid had no effect at all. Instead, they must get homeopathic arsenic! Do you see any connection here?”

You’re right, Christer. These two experiments [7, 8] are in practice Similia cum similibus. Divergent research results confirmed what a homeopath’s job is in practice. The homeopath listens to the patient and plans treatment for him or her on the basis of the information found in the interviews. The same homeopathic preparations do not automatically work in the same way in other patients, and health can be maintained with a different preparation than that which helps in treating of diseases.

There are more plant studies. I have followed them with increased interest. Corn sprouts have been studied with homeopathic preparations in Serbia. The germination of corn is usually improved by giving it 2,4-D (ie 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), since corn grains have poor ability to grow if stored for a long time.

For a long time stored (old) corn grains were given either water (control group) or 2,4-D by several different strengths (3C, 3.75C, 4.5C, 5.25C and 6C). After this the development of the sprouts was followed up, fresh growth, length of roots and shoots were measured. According to the research team, the sprouts were not affected by homeopathic forces, but it provided other characteristics that were studied further. The corn grains treated with homeopathic preparations were statistically significantly more effective in the production of fresh material in both sprouts and roots. The study also found differences between different strengths. For example, the 3C strength led to the greatest growth of fresh material, while the 4.5C strength increased the root and sprout length. In conclusion, the research team suggested that homeopathic forces appear to have a positive effect on long-stored corn grains as they stimulate their growth [9].

At the University of Karachi, Pakistan, seeds of mung bean, sunflower, okra and black lentils were treated with homeopathic medicines Arnica Montana and Thuja occidentalis (30C) and the effect on root rot was evaluated. From each plant variety, 4 seeds were selected to grow in Petri dishes. Pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina were infected at the roots. Seed results showed that seeds treated with A. Montana and T. occidentalis (30C) showed complete germination (100%), longer root length and excellent inhibitory ability to resist pathogens in the roots. Sterilized water and absolute alcohol significantly reduced germination (p <0.05) and caused severe pathogenic infections that were visible both on the seed surface and on roots. Seed treatment with homeopathic remedies was an effective and inexpensive method to protect seeds and roots from fungal infections [10].


A blinded and randomized study at the University of Bologna, Italy investigated the effects of homeopathic arsenic on mosaic virus (TMV), which is harmful to tobacco plants. The study found that homeopathic arsenic increased TMV resistance [11].


“Thank you, Jouni, for taking up these plant studies. Homeopathic preparations appear to have an effect. I no longer doubt it. What is also interesting here is that plants can be used to test the thought process of homeopathy and possibly we will get closer to the “truth” of homeopathy.”




1. Sabine D Klein, Ursula Wolf. Comparison of homeopathic globules prepared from high and ultra-high dilutions of various starting materials by ultraviolet light spectroscopy. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 24: 111-117, 2016


2. Prashant Chikramane, A.K. Suresh, Jayesh Ramesh Bellare, Shantaram Kane. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy 99(4):231-242, 2010

3. Sabine D Klein, Annegret Sandig, Stephan Baumgartner, Ursula Wolf. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2013, Article ID 370609, 11 pages

4. Steven Cartwright. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies. Homeopathy 105 (1): 55-65, 2016

5. Lucietta Betti, Grazia Trebbi, Maria Olga Kokornaczyk, Daniele Nani, Maurizio Peruzzi, Giovanni Dinelli, Paolo Bellavite, Maurizio Brizzi. Number of succussion strokes affects effectiveness of ultra-high-diluted arsenic on in vitro wheat germination and polycrystalline structures obtained by droplet evaporation method. Homeopathy Volume 106 (1): 47-54, 2017

6. Lucietta Betti, Maurizio Brizzi, Daniele Nani, Maurizio Peruzzi. Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homoeopathic Journal 86 (2): 86-89, 1997

7. Tim Jäger, Claudia Scherr, Meinhard Simon, Peter Heusser, Stephan Baumgartner. Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). Scientific World Journal 10: 2112-2129, 2010

8. B Hamman, G Koning, K Him Lok. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination. Homeopathy 92(3): 140-144, 2003

9. Vesna Dragicevic, Mihajlo Spasic, Milena Simic, Zoran Dumanovic, Bogdan Nikolic. Stimulative influence of germination and growth of maize seedlings originating from aged seeds by 2,4-D potencies. Homeopathy 102 (3): 179-186, 2013

10. Asma Hanif, Shahnaz Dawar. Study of homeopathic drugs on seed germination and fungal growth. Semantic Scholar Corpus ID: 165157558

11. Lucietta Betti, L. Lazzarato, Grazia Trebbi, Maurizio Brizzi, GL Calzoni, F Borghini, Daniele Nani. Effects of homeopathic arsenic on tobacco plant resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Homeopathy 92 (4): 195-202, 2003

12. Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, Rosana Gonçalves, Rodrigues das Dores, Ernane Ronie Martins, Vicente Wagner, Dias Casali. International Journal of High Dilution Research 9(33), 2010

13. Homeopaattiset ja antroposofiset valmisteet. Fimea, 2001

14. Amjith Naisam. Homeopathic Management of Tomato Leaf Curl Virus Using Psorinum. Homeopathy 109 (1): A1-A28, 2020

15. Tim Jäger, Sandra Würtenberger, Stephan Baumgartner. Effects of Homeopathic Preparations of Mercurius corrosivus on the Growth Rate of Mercury-Stressed Duckweed Lemna gibba L. as a Function of Different Stress Levels. Homeopathy 109 (1): A1-A28, 2020

16. Christer Sundqvist. Scientific evidence for homeopathy part 1. 30.4.2020

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