The Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine, awarded annually, is a highly respected science award. For many years, the prize has been awarded to cancer researchers. In 2019, the prize was awarded to British molecular biologist Peter J. Ratcliffe and US physicians Gregg L. Semenza and William Kaelin for examining cellular oxygenation. The ability of cancer cells to adapt to changes in oxygen concentration is widely known. Many cancers thrive in low oxygen levels. Nobel-prize discoveries h